Answer :

The transport system is a service by which persons and goods move from one place to the other using humans, animals or vehicles. Transport system establishes the links between producing centres and consuming centres. Transport provides the link through which trade takes place. Transport system also acts as an artery for communication within the nation and among the nations.


The principal modes of transportation are land ways, waterways, airways and through pipelines. But today the road transport system is largely being replaced by the rail transport system.


Railways are the most economical means of transportation, especially for long distances. In the colonial era, rail transport was developed to exploit the resources in inaccessible areas and to ensure connectivity to ports. Even today, major ports will be well-connected with railways resulting in the faster transport of bulkier goods to other places. With the advancement of technology, India has been well-connected by the rail network. Thus, railways ensure the connectivity of different regions and economical transportation of goods from place to place.


But the preferred means of transportation, especially for short distances are the roadways. India has a well-connected system of road networks including National highways, the Golden Quadrilateral connecting Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata, many rural roads and district roads. Thus roadways are largely preferred by the people in contrast to railways because of the following factors:


Cost of construction- The cost of construction and maintenance of roadways is relatively lesser than the construction of railways. It does not require the rigorous checking and maintenance like in railways.


Door-to-door connection- Roadways provide door-to-door connection to all the places. It provides direct connectivity to all the places.


Terrains- Railways are the only means of transport to have access to the difficult terrains. Not only through plains, but even difficult terrains like deserts, forests, and mountains are also accessible through roads. It is the only means to reach the hilly, mountainous and rugged terrains. It is the only means of transportation through dense, impenetrable forests and areas defined by certain tribal groups.


Transporting goods- Roadways are the important means of transporting bulky goods. It is the most economical means of transportation of goods over short distances.


Link for other transports- Roadways are the primary means of transport that connects the other means of transportation. It provides direct connectivity to airways, waterways, and railways.


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