NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

NCERT - Biology

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology act as an important resource for the students preparaing for CBSE Class 12th Board exam. We bring to you NCERT Class 12 Bio solutions with the help of which you can prepare all the important topics covered in CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus.

The concepts are solved in an easy language using illustrations and diagrams. The answers for each topic are given chapter-wise, which further makes it easier for students to browse these solutions effortlessly and practise them regularly. You can follow the links given below to browse chapter wise solutions for NCERT 12 Biology Solutions.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology - All Chapters

Biology is not a scoring subject like Maths, hence it requires in-depth preparation and regular practise. So, if you have opted for Science in Class 12, then by now you would have had the idea that Biology is more complex than the majority of the subjects. Therefore, it needs thorough preparation and for that, you can follow NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology. 

The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology is an extremely useful resource prepared by expert teachers of the subject. Developed in sync with the latest NCERT curriculum, these solutions incorporate detailed explanations of complex Biology concepts to enable students to master the subject effectively. Moreover, to help students have a good command over topics like Evolution, Food Production and Biotechnology, we add step-by-step explanations and descriptions.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Solved Question Papers
CBSE Class 12 Biology Question Paper 2019
CBSE Class 12 Biology Question Paper 2018
CBSE Class 12 Biology Previous Year Question Papers

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapters

Chapter 1: Reproduction In Organisms

Chapter 1 of the class 12 NCERT Biology textbook discusses the important topic of “Reproduction in Organisms”. In simple terms, Reproduction refers to the biological process of creation of new offspring from the ones that already exist. In organisms, reproduction is mainly categorized into two divisions, i.e., sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction.

Reproduction is an extremely important process in the absence of which the organisms cannot survive for long. Reproduction ensures the progression of species from one generation to another as older species experience senescence and eventually, their life ends.  

Important Topics: 

  • Asexual Reproduction
  • Sexual Reproduction
  • Fertilization
  • Pre-fertilisation Events
  • Post-fertilisation Events

Type of Questions: MCQs, fill in the blanks, diagram explanation and short and long answer questions. 

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

An important chapter of NCERT class 12 Biology textbook, Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants explores the process of sexual reproduction in flowering plants. The chapter discusses in detail important reproduction topics like morphology, pre-fertilization, post-fertilization, double fertilization and formation of seeds.

Further, in this chapter students will get to learn about important topics such as how plants get prepared for the fertilization and why fertilization is needed. Along with important reproduction concepts, important terms like stamen, pollen grain, pollination, embryo and seed have also been described in detail.

Important Topics: 

  • The Need for Fertilization
  • Pre-fertilisation: Structures and Events
  • Post-fertilization: Structures and Events
  • Double Fertilization
  • Apomixis and Polyembryony
  • Stamen, Microsporangium and Pollen Grain

Types of Questions: Fill in the Blanks, MCQs, diagram explanation and short answer questions and long answer questions

Chapter 3 – Reproduction In Humans 

Reproduction in Humans is the processing of biologically producing their offspring either through the sexual process or asexual process. The concept of Human Reproduction is taught to students in junior classes as well. However, in-class 12 NCERT Biology textbook, the topic is explored in-depth to give students a detailed understanding of Human Reproduction processes.

In Human Reproduction, both male and female exercise active participation in producing their offspring. The beginning of reproduction in human beings starts with the process of egg fertilization. 

Over time, fertilization results in the formation of zygote and then implantation, which leads to the development of the embryo. Subsequently, post gestation, the birth of the baby takes place and then lactation.

Important Topics: 

  • Male and Female Reproductive Systems
  • Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
  • The Role of Sex Hormones
  • Fertilization and Implantation
  • Pregnancy and Embryonic Development
  • Parturition and Lactation

Types of Questions: Fill in the blanks, MCQs, diagram explanation and short answer questions and long answer questions

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

The reproductive health of a person refers to their overall well-being in all facets of reproduction, which includes physical, emotional, social and behavioural. In this regard, chapter 4 of the NCERT Biology focuses on explaining important concepts associated with reproductive health. 

These topics encompass Reproductive Health Problems and Strategies, Birth Control & Population Stabilization and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, among others.

This chapter of class 12th enables students to enhance their awareness of important concepts such as causes of infertility, birth control measures, methods of contraception, medical termination of pregnancy and causes of maternal and infant mortality. 

Going forward, the chapter also throws light on the topic of Infertility and why couples face difficulty in conceiving children. Such couples can take the help of various methods like In Vitro fertilization and Test Tube Baby’ Programme to become parents.

Important Topics:

  • Reproductive Health – Problems and Strategies
  • Population Explosion and Birth Control
  • Medical Termination of Pregnancy
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Infertility

Types of Questions: Fill in the Blanks, multiple-choice questions, short answer questions and long answer questions. 

Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Chapter 5 of the NCERT Biology textbook Principles of Inheritance and Variation discusses the important concepts of Inheritance and Variation at length. Inheritance acts as the foundation of heredity, it is primarily the process through which traits or characters are passed from one generation to the other. Variation, on the other hand, is the extent by which the offspring varies from their progenitor.

As the chapter progresses, students will learn about inheritance with respect to a single gene and double genes. Further, important topics like Mutation, Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance, Mendel’s Law of Inheritance and Mendelian Disorder have also been explored in depth. 

Each of these important topics in respect to Inheritance and Variation has been described in a proper manner with the help of diagrams, examples and flowcharts.

Important Topics:

  • Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance
  • Inheritance of One Gene
  • Polygenic Inheritance
  • Sex Determination
  • Mutation and Genetic Disorders
  • Chromosomal Disorders

Types of Questions: Complete answers to the textbook questions, exercises, worksheets, and MCQ’s.

Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

The chapter “Molecular Basis of Inheritance” forms an integral part of class 11th and 12th Biology syllabus. This topic encompasses the study of important concepts such as DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) and RNA (Ribonucleic Acid).

Along with these topics, students will get to learn about important aspects such as Replication, Transcription, Genetic Code and Human Genome Project. Besides, several important terms such as Polynucleotide Chain, Regulation of Gene Expression and DNA Fingerprinting have been described in detail.

DNA and RNA are mainly two types of nucleic acid that are found in the living organisms. In the majority of the organisms, DNA acts as the genetic material. RNA, on the other hand, also serves as the genetic material in some viruses as well as organisms.

Moreover, in some cases, it plays the role of the catalytic molecule as well as structural and adapter. For DNA and RNA, cytosine is common, whereas Thymine is only present in DNA.

Important Topics:

  • DNA and RNA
  • Types of DNA and RNA
  • Packaging of DNA Helix
  • The Search For Genetic Material
  • The Genetic Material is DNA
  • Replication and Transcription
  • Genetic Code and Mutations

Types of Questions: Comprehensive answers to the textbook questions, exercises, worksheets, and MCQ’s.

Chapter 7: Evolution

Chapter 7 of the NCERT Biology explores the critical topic of Evolution. Evolutionary Biology mainly deals with the study of history associated with life forms on the earth. Evolution is the development of diverse types of living organisms from earlier forms across the history of the earth. Along with the development of living organisms, Evolution also reflects the changes in flora and fauna across the earth that co-existed along with humans.

In the history of the Universe, the Origin of Life is considered as an important and unique event. The origin of the universe has been explained via the Big Bang Theory, which suggests that different galaxies were formed after a huge explosion took place. 

Besides, the Origin of Life, the chapter also discusses some important concepts which include, Evolutions of Humans, Biological Evolution, Origin and Evolution of Man. Further, to help students understand the “Evolution” chapter comprehensively, important questions and exercises have been solved using a simplified language.

Important Topics:

  • Origin of Life
  • The Theory of Evolution of Life Forms
  • Evidence for Evolution
  • Adaptive Radiation
  • Mechanism of Evolution & Biological Evolution
  • A Brief Summary of Evolution
  • Origin and Evolution of Man

Types of Questions: Flowcharts, exercises, fill in the blanks, worksheets, and long answer type questions.

Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases

Chapter 8 - Human Health and Diseases of the NCERT textbook acquaints students with the topic of human health and the various types of diseases. The chapter covers in detail the important topics like the common diseases in human, their prevention and treatment. 

Additionally,  in this chapter, students will learn about Immunity, its types, Allergies and Immune System in the Body.

The topic of diseases has been classified into two types of diseases, i.e., congenital and acquired. Congenital diseases are the physiological or anatomical deformities that are present in a person from their birth. Acquired diseases, on the other hand, are the ones who develop after birth and are further classified into, communicable and non-communicable diseases.

Important Topics: 

  • Common Diseases in Humans
  • Immunity and Its Types
  • Vaccination and Immunization
  • Immune System in the Body
  • AIDS, Its Causes and Prevention
  • Cancer, Its Causes, Detection & Diagnosis and Prevention
  • Drugs and Alcohol Abuse, Prevention and Control

Types of Questions: When reading NCERT Biology Human Health and Diseases textbook solutions, you will find questions based on fill in the blanks. Also, you will find short and long questions.

Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production is an interesting and important chapter of class 12th Biology syllabus. With the increasing world population, it has become necessary to enhance the quantity of food production. So, in this respect, biological processes plant breeding and animal husbandry have an important role to play. 

Furthermore, advanced techniques like tissue culture and embryo transfer technology are also expected to play a vital role in raising the quantity of food production.

Animal Husbandry is a critical agricultural practice the objective of which revolves around the breeding and raising of livestock. Animal breeding, on the other hand, aims at enhancing the yield of animals and while making sure that the ‘produce’ has improved and desirable qualities. When breeding is performed between the animals of similar breed, then it is termed as inbreeding, whereas if the breeds are different then is called outbreeding.

Important Topics

  • Animal husbandry: Management of Farms and Farm Animals
  • Dairy and Poultry Farm Management
  • Animal Breeding and Its Different Types
  • Plant Breeding and the Process of Plant Breeding
  • Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance
  • Plant Breeding for Improved Food Quality
  • Single Cell Protein (SCP)
  • Tissue Culture

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes are living creatures that are very tiny in size and are specified in the form of fungi, bacteria and protozoa. While microbes are responsible for causing various diseases to human beings, but this does not mean that all microbes are harmful.

There are plenty of microbes which are very useful to humans in a variety of ways. Hence, the usefulness of Microbes and their contribution to human welfare has been elucidated in this chapter. 

The products like milk and curd that we use in our everyday life contain microbes in plenty. The dough, which is utilized for the purpose of making food items such as idli and dosa is also fermented with the help of bacteria.

Industrial products like beverages and antibiotics are also some examples of the application of microbes in our daily lives. Besides these products, microbes are also used for producing certain chemicals like enzymes, organic acids and alcohol.

Important Topics:

  • Microbes In Household Products
  • Microbes In Industrial Products
  • Microbes In Sewage Treatment
  • Microbes In Production Of Biogas
  • Microbes As Biocontrol Agents
  • Microbes As Biofertilizers

Types of Questions: When solving NCERT Biology Microbes in Human Welfare textbook solutions, you will find questions based on fill in the blanks and MCQs. Also, you will find short and long questions.

Chapter 11: Biotechnology Principles and Processes 

Biotechnology is mainly concerned with techniques which makes use of enzymes or living organisms for the production of processes and products that are useful for humans. The different products that are created through Biotechnology are aimed at improving the lives of human beings. 

Biotechnology also finds its application in diverse industries which include, Food Industry, Agricultural Industry, Pharmaceutical and Waste Treatment Industry.

In this chapter of your NCERT Biology, you will read about the modern techniques of Biotechnology, i.e., Genetic Engineering and Manufacturing of Antibiotics, Drugs and other Vaccines.

Further, the chapter focuses on the study of topics such as the principle of biotechnology, DNA technology, Separation and isolation of DNA fragments and Isolation of the Genetic Material (DNA).

Important Topics:

  • Principles of Biotechnology: Genetic and Bioprocess Engineering
  • Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Cloning Vectors: Origin of replication (ori) and Cloning sites
  • Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA)
  • Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Isolation of the Genetic Material (DNA)

Types of Questions: For easy reference of students, MCQs, short answer questions, fill in the blanks have been solved clearly and concisely.

Chapter 12: Biotechnology and Its Applications 

As described in the previous chapter, Biotechnology primarily deals with the production of food items and industrial products with the aid of genetically modified microbes such as bacteria, fungi, animals and plants. 

So, in the Biotechnology and Its Applications chapter of Biology NCERT, you will learn thoroughly about the applications of biotechnology in diverse fields. These include food processing, therapeutics, diagnostics, waste treatment and energy production among others.

Along with the explanation about the application of Biotechnology in diverse fields, the chapter also throws light on some important biotechnological concepts. These concepts include the Green Revolution, Genetically Engineered Insulin, Gene Therapy, Molecular Diagnosis and Chemical safety testing, among others.

Besides these topics, the chapter also discusses the possibility of biotechnology to solve problems related to biology which have not been solved till with the help of conventional techniques.

Important Topics:

  • Biotechnological Applications In Agriculture
  • Biotechnological Applications In Medicine
  • Transgenic Animals
  • Molecular Diagnosis
  • Ethical Issues

Types of Questions: The entire chapter has been summarized lucidly with the help of related questions, MCQ’s, fill in the blanks and important exercises.

Chapter 13: Organisms and Population

The chapter “Organisms and Population” is vital for the exam point of view and for scoring good marks in the exam. Ecology primarily deals with the study of the interactions that take place between the organisms and their abiotic environment.

This chapter mainly focuses on explaining to students the four levels of biological organization which are organisms, populations, communities and biomes. Water, soil, temperature and light are essential components of the environment in which organisms live.

Moreover, the environment in which organisms reside comprises of both biotic as well as abiotic components. Biotic components in the environment include all the living organisms in the form of animals, plants, birds, insects and bacteria, among others. Abiotic components, on the other hand, include all the non-living things which involve soil, water, sunlight and temperature.

Important Topics:

  • Organism And Its Environment
  • Responses to Abiotic Factors
  • Population Growth
  • Population Density
  • Population Interactions
  • Life History Variation

Types of Questions: To help students understand the NCERT Biology concepts clearly, answers to short questions, MCQ’s and long questions have been solved in an easy language.

Chapter 14: Ecosystem

The Ecosystem is defined as a functional biological community which comprises of living organisms in the form of plants, animals, birds and insects. The organisms present in the ecosystem interact with each other and also with the environment that surrounds them. Varying greatly in size, the ecosystem can consist of a small pond, a large river and forest.

Hence, the topic of ecosystem explains the key structures of the ecosystem, its functioning, and types of ecosystems on the surface of the earth.

Moreover,  to make it easier for students to study the ecosystem, it has been divided into two primary categories, which are a terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. Grasslands, deserts and forests are some examples of terrestrial ecosystem, whereas wetlands, ponds and lakes are some important examples of aquatic ecosystem.

Important Topics: 

  • Ecosystem – Structure And Function
  • Decomposition
  • Energy Flow
  • Ecological Pyramids
  • Ecological Succession

Types of Questions: All the topics of Ecosystem chapter have been explained clearly with the help of short answer questions, long answer questions and MCQs.

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation

The chapter Biodiversity and Conservation of the NCERT textbook is associated with the study of living organisms that exist on the earth in the form of plants, animals and microbes. Going forward, the chapter discusses the important topic of Biodiversity, and the different types of diversity, namely Genetic, Species and Ecological diversity.

Moreover, in this chapter, students will learn about some important topics like the importance of biodiversity, its types, its structure along with degradation and conservation.

How Many Species are there on the Earth and How Many in India is also an important topic which is discussed later in the chapter. Similarly, Patterns of Biodiversity and importance of Species Diversity to the ecosystem have also been explored in detail.

Eventually, you will be required to read about biodiversity conservation, ways to conserve biodiversity and techniques of biodiversity conservation.

Important Topics:

  • Genetic diversity, Species diversity, and Ecological diversity
  • Causes of Loss of Biodiversity
  • Importance of Species Diversity
  • Biodiversity conservation: In situ conservation and Ex-situ conservation

Types of Questions: For the convenience of students. we have provided the short answer and long answer questions for the chapter Biodiversity and Conservation. 

Chapter 16: Environmental Issue 

Due to the ever-increasing human population, the demand for food, water and land and other commodities has been increasing rapidly. Owing to this demand, the pressure is put on natural resources which leads to the pollution of air, water and soil.

Hence, it has become extremely crucial to examine the depletion and degradation of our natural resources without affecting the rate of development. This primary chapter deals with different types of pollution and the methods needed to control pollution.

Humans play a major role in contributing to the different types of pollutants that result in environmental issues. Some of the major causes include industrial practices such as deforestation, burning of fuels, chemical dumping, waste disposal and use of plastic goods.

Important Topics:

  • Air Pollution And Its Control
  • Water Pollution And Its Control
  • Agro-Chemicals And Their Effects
  • Greenhouse Effect And Global Warming
  • Radioactive Wastes
  • Ozone Depletion In The Stratosphere
  • Deforestation.

Types of Questions: This chapter has been made easier and exciting with the help of short answer questions, MCQ’s, fill in the blanks, and solved examples.

Benefits of using NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

    • Thoroughly researched solutions prepared by expert teachers.
    • Value-based questions with step-by-step solutions
    • Easy to understand language for offering in-depth knowledge of concepts
    • Strictly based on the recent CBSE curriculum
    • One-stop solution for preparing for the Biology board exam
    • Solved Exemplar problems to enable students to practice the topics properly
    • Available for free and can be accessed easily


Final Words

Biology being the most important subject for students of science stream requires them to approach the subject seriously and dedicatedly. Scoring desirable marks in the subject is not an easy task and therefore it is important to support your preparation through NCERT Solutions. NCERT 12 Biology Solutions that we provide give students the chance to target each topic specifically and prepare it methodically. Similarly, it gives boost to exam preparation and help students score better marks in the exam.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • How to study Biology for Class 12?

    NCERT Class 12 Biology textbook consists of 5 units, comprising a total of 22 chapters. Unit-2 contains the maximum weightage of 18 marks. It has 4 chapters associated with the field of genetics- Genetics & Evolution, Molecular Basis of Inheritance, Principles of Inheritance & Variation, and Evolution. This is the only unit in biology which you cannot cram as it requires a thorough understanding of concepts. 

    To study this unit, you must read the chapter, underline the important topics, and practice extra questions from a good reference book such as Pradeep Biology textbook. Rest of the units are theoretical and require you to learn the question and answers. You can check the detailed NCERT Class 12 Biology Solutions for better understanding above.

  • What is the use of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology?

    NCERT Solutions for Class 12 made available by us comprise of textbook questions and their simple and well-explained answers. These solutions are preferred by students who find difficult to prepare for the exam through only NCERT Biology textbook due to their complex explanations.

    Our CBSE NCERT biology solutions enable students to practice each question on its merit to develop a better understanding of the topic and fare better in the exam.

  • How can I start my preparation for Biology subject with the help of NCERT Solutions?

    NCERT Solutions for Class 12th Biology made available by us help students simplify their biology preparation for Class 12th. So, when it comes to preparing for the board exams with the help of NCERT Solutions, you need to follow a simple approach. Make sure you are reading the solutions on a regular basis to clear your doubts and practice difficult questions.

    Additionally, you can take reference of these solutions to revise important chapters and topics during the exam time to score good marks.

  • Do the NCERT Class 12 Bio Solutions cover explanations for all chapters from the NCERT textbook?

    Since NCERT Solutions that we provide are based on the recent NCERT syllabus, they mainly comprise of all the chapters that are in the Biology textbook. So, these solutions are sure to help you master each topic, within different chapters quite properly helping you score good marks in the exam.

  • Are NCERT Solutions enough for the Class 12th Biology board exam preparation?

    When it comes to preparing for the Biology board exam, a lot depends upon your level of preparation and the hard work that you put in. Apart from that the study material also plays an effective role. So, if you are referring to NCERT Solutions and you are prepared to study regularly, then surely you can score good marks in the exam.