Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology refers to the process of joining DNA molecules from two different sources and joining them into a host organism.
The two enzymes that are essential for constructing rDNA is:
• Restriction enzymes
• DNA ligase.
Restriction Enzymes: these enzyme act as a scissors, cutting up the DNA of the phage and thereby inactivating it. Restriction enzymes cut at specific DNA target sequences, which is one of the key features that make them suitable for DNA manipulation.
Restriction enzymes belongs to a larger class of enzymes called Nucleases.These are of two kinds: 1. Endonucleases and 2. Exonucleases.
Exonucleases remove nucleotides from the ends of DNA, while endonuclease make cuts at specific positions within the DNA.
DNA ligase: The process of joining cut fragments together is done by enzyme DNA ligase.
The purified DNA and the vector of interest are cut with the sam restriction enzyme. This gives us the fragment of DNA and the cut vector, that is open. The process of joining these two pieces together using ‘DNA ligase’ is called “DNA ligation”. The resultant DNA is ‘Recombinant DNA’.
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