The technique used in the separation of the DNA fragments is known as gel electrophoresis.
Here, the separation of the fragments occurs based on the size of the fragment. The smaller fragments move farther than the larger fragments.
Explanation: DNA fragments are charged, therefore they can be separated by providing electric field and using a medium for the conductance of this electricity. Being negatively charged, it migrates towards the anode through the medium. Commonly used medium is the agarose gel. This provides a sieving effect, therefore the DNA fragments are resolved based on their size.
The separated fragments are stained in ethidium bromide (intercalating agent) and viewed under UV radiation. They appear as bright orange coloured bands of DNA.
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