Q. 324.4( 5 Votes )

Name the members of the lanthanide series which exhibit +4 oxidation states and those which exhibit +2 oxidation state. Try to correlate this type of behaviour with the electronic configuration of these elements.

Answer :

The members of lanthanide series along with their electronic configuration are given in the below table:



The typical oxidation state of the lanthanides is +3. The oxidation state of +2 and +4 are exhibited by some of the elements. These are shown by those elements which by losing 2 or 4 elements acquire a stable configuration.


+2 oxidation state is exhibited when the lanthanide has the configuration 5d06s2 so that 2 electrons are lost easily. Hence the members which will show +2 oxidation state are:


+2 = 60Nd, 62Sm, 63Eu, 69Tm, 70Yb


+4 oxidation state is exhibited when the configuration left (by losing 2 electrons) is close to 4f0 (example 4f0 , 4f1, 4f2, 4f3) or close to 4f7 (example 4f7or 4f8) or close to 4f14 ( 4f13 or 4f14)


Hence, the members which will show +4 oxidation state are:


+4 = 58Ce, 59Pr, 60Nd, 65Tb, 66Dy


Note: Each case tends to revert to the more stable oxidation state of +3 by loss or gain of an electron. That is why Sm2+, Eu2+ and Yb2+ ions in solutions are good reducing agents and aqueous solution of Ce4+ and Tb4+ are good oxidizing agents.


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