HIV causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) when it enters a human body.
After entering into the body, HIV first enters into the macrophages. Here, the RNA genome of the virus is replicated to form DNA with the help of an enzyme – reverse transcriptase. This viral DNA gets incorporated into the DNA of the host and directs it to produce more viruses. Since macrophages continue to produce virus, it is called as the HIV factory.
HIV now enters into the T lymphocytes where they replicate and produce progeny viruses. These progeny viruses are released into the blood where they attack the other healthy T lymphocytes. Since this continues for a long time, there is a progressive decrease in the number of T lymphocytes. Due to this decrease, the person suffers from various infections caused by different bacteria thereby becoming immuno deficient.
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