The political and diplomatic relations between the Mughal kings and the neighbouring countries of Iran and Turan was attached on the control of the frontier defined by the Hindukush mountains that separated Afghanistan from the regions of Iran and Central Asia.
Any attempt to enter the sub-continent by the enemy was adequately dealt with. The Mughal responded to any potential danger by controlling strategic outposts – notably Kabul and Qandahar.
One of the major bone of contention between the Safavids and the Mughals was the fortress town, Qandahar. Although Safavids and Mughals shared diplomatic relations, the status of Qandahar was undecided. Finally, in 1622, the Persian army surrounded Qandahar and defeated the Mughals.
Mughals and the Ottomans also shared a relationship based on commerce and religion. It marked the free movement of merchants and pilgrims in the territories under Ottoman control.
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