Q. 4

‘Modern methods of breeding animals and plants can alleviate the global food shortage’. Comment on the statement and give suitable examples.

Answer :

Modern methods of breeding animals and plants can alleviate the global food shortage’. This sentence can be proved by the following examples:

1. MOET:


Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET) is used to improve the success rate of fertilization during artificial insemination in animal husbandry.


• In the method the cow is administered with certain hormone with FSH like activity.


• This hormone leads to the production of 6-8 eggs per cycle instead of one.


• The animal is then mated with an elite bull or is artificially inseminated.


• The fertilized egg at 8-32 cells stages is then recovered non-surgically and transferred to the surrogate mothers.


• This technique ensures the increased production of herd in a short time.


2. SINGLE CELL PROTEIN:


• Single cell protein is used as the alternate source of proteins for animal and human nutrition.


• Single cell proteins are very advantageous as the microbes are grown in very large amount and they produce a large amount of proteins within short span of time.


• This protein can be consumed by animals and humans as the alternative source.


Hence, single cell protein is less time consuming, less product using and high yielding method. Also it helps in reducing environmental pollution because there is no misuse of products.


3. BIOFORTIFICATION:


• Biofortification is a technique of breeding crops with higher levels of nutrients example vitamin, minerals, proteins, fats etc.


• It is a major technique to improve the food quality.


• Consumption of food with higher healthy nutrient level is a means to improve public health.


• Many varieties of food such as maize hybrid with higher amino acid level, Atlas 66, a wheat variety having high protein content were produced.


• Hence, biofortification can be used to improve the nutrient content in food products.


4. TISSUE CULTURE:


• Tissue culture is the method through which we can produce thousands of plants of same type by a single cell.


• In this, an explants or any part of the plant is selected and is grown in test tube.


• The growth takes place under sterile conditions in special nutrient medium which contains carbon source, inorganic salts, amino acids, vitamins and other growth regulators.


• A whole plant can be generated from a single plant cell or an explant.


• The tissue culture also helps in the recovery of the healthy plant from a diseased plant. Because even if the plant is affected with the virus, the meristems are free from it. Hence, the healthy meristems are removed from the plant and grown in vitro conditions to obtain virus free or healthy plants.


All of the above listed methods are the modern breeding methods. They all are less time consuming and high yielding methods that to a large extent have decreased the food shortage.


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