(i) The type of immunisation to be provided for prevention of tuberculosis in young children is active immunisations. This is because children are prone to tuberculosis easily. And a newborn baby acquires passive immunity from its mother through the placenta. So children should be given active immunisation to prevent from tuberculosis. And this is generally done by giving BCG vaccine, which is an active immunisation.
In active immunisation antigens are given as immunisation to produce antibodies. And Active immunisation is long-lasting, and sometimes life-long.
(ii) The type of immunisation to be provided for prevention of tetanus in a person injured in a road accident is passive immunisation.
Passive immunisation is when a person is given someone else’s antibodies. When these antibodies are introduced into the person’s body, the “loaned” antibodies help prevent or fight certain infectious diseases. The protection offered by passive immunization is short-lived, usually lasting only a few weeks or months. But it helps protect right away.
Road accident is sudden and the person injured need to be saved right away, so passive immunisation is provided for quick recovery. As tetanus is a complication of wounds and injuries, it is essential that injured people receive appropriate surgical and medical care of contaminated open wounds.
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