Q. 7

Mention any two s

Answer :

DNA Fingerprinting is a technique to find out variations in individuals of a population at DNA level.

The use of DNA fingerprinting is as follows:


i. It is quick way to compare DNA sequences of any two individuals.


ii. It is very useful identification tool in forensic applications


iii. DNA fingerprinting is the basis of paternity testing.


iv. It is widely used in determining population and genetic diversities.


The following are the situations in which the use of DNA fingerprinting is necessary:


i. When there is dispute between parents.


ii. To find evidences on crime scenes, it physically connect a piece of evidence to a person or rule out someone as a suspect.


iii. It is necessary for criminal identification and forensics.


iv. It is necessary to cure genetic diseases by maternity or paternity tests.


v. it is necessary when identify a dead body that’s too old or damaged to be recognizable.


vi. We know plants too have DNA, so DNA fingerprinting can be used in plants too. In plants DNA fingerprinting can be used to find out plants with therapeutic value as well as the plants can be genetically modified for higher yield.


vii. Animals too have DNAs, so DNA fingerprinting can be used to genetically modify an animal species for better usage, example horses in horserace, etc.


OR


Sometimes we see genetic changes and phenotype changes not from a mutation, but from a gene controlling multiple traits. This is called pleiotropy. As stated, pleiotropy is where one gene winds up controlling multiple phenotypic traits in the organism. This happens because the single gene influences more than one trait or a number of characters simultaneously. So, pleiotropy is an effect of single gene on multiple phenotypic expressions.


Following are few examples:


i. Size of the starch grains produced and shape of the seeds in pea plant are controlled by a single gene Phenulketonuria. In Phenylketonuria single mutated gene express mental retardation and reduction in hair and skin pigmentation


ii. In man a gene producing the disease phenylketonuria also produces a number of abnormal phenotypic traits such as short stature, mental retardation widely spaced incisors, pigmented patches on skin etc.


iii. In Drosophila the gene for vestigial wings also affects structure of reproductive organs and the bristles on the wings.


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