Answer :

Air pollution means the contamination of air by harmful substances like dust, fumes, gas, fog, odour, smoke or vapour in proportions which is undesirable to maintain healthy growth of flora and fauna. When the content of toxic gases in the air increases, it results in air pollution. There are many sources that cause air pollution in India which are as follows:

a. Combustion of fossil fuel

b. Mining activities

c. Industrial waste

d. Smoke from vehicles

These activities emit harmful substances like oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and asbestos into the atmosphere which cause air pollution. Air pollution also gives rise to many respiratory, nervous and circulatory diseases.


Land pollution involves various aspects which include substances which may cause it like viruses and bacteria from human and animal excretion, garbage and vectors, residue of pesticides and fertilisers, alkalinity, fluorides, radio-active substances. The major sources of ‘land pollution’ are these substances the source of which are as follows:

a. Improper human activities

b. Use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers

c. Disposal of untreated industrial waste

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