The following are the changes that were observed after 1900 BCE in Harappan Civilisation.
1. There is a decrease in material culture.
2. Unique artefacts disappeared.
3. Disappearance of print culture.
4. Decline in long distance trade.
5. Decline in craft knowledge.
6. Various techniques in architecture became lesser known.
7. Lesser concentration of large public structures.
8. Absence of standardized weights and measures.
9. The quality of settlements shows poor and incoherent planning. The prevalence of rural culture is evident. Old sites were being abandoned, and few new sites were being constructed.
10. The downfall of authority is speculated. The Deadman Lane, which was mentioned by Marshall, highlights this fact.
Reasons for this change:
1. Climatic change
3. Excessive flooding
4. Drying up/shifting of rivers
5. Overexploitation of the landscape
6. The Harrapan state or the unifying element came to an end.
7. Decline and abandonment of cities.
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