Answer :

The Revolutionary movement for Indian independence is a part of the Indian independence movement comprising the actions of the underground revolutionary factions. Groups believing in armed revolution against the ruling British fall into this category. The revolutionary groups were mainly concentrated in Bengal, Maharashtra, Bihar, the United Provinces and Punjab. More groups were scattered across India. The revolutionary philosophies and movement made its presence felt during the 1905 Partition of Bengal.

Revolutionary Movement in Maharashtra –

• In Maharashtra, Vasudev Balwant Phadke gave an armed struggle against the British. He took the training of arms from Vastad Lahuji Salve. He organised the Ramoshis and revolted against the British. This rebellion became unsuccessful. The British Government sent him to Aden jail. There he died in 1883.

• The Chapekar Brothers - The three Chafekar brothers, Damodar, Balkrishna, and Vasudev were Indian revolutionaries who were hanged till death for the assassination of W.C. Rand who was the British plague Commissioner for Pune. Pune was hit by a bubonic plague in 1896 and Rand took drastic measures to curb the effects. The drastic measures were an example of tyranny and oppression to the local population which made Rand an extremely unpopular figure. This led to his assassination in the hands of the Chafekar brothers.

• India House - India House, in London, was an important centre which provided for assistance to revolutionary groups as well as students. Pandit Shyamji Krishna Varma, an Indian patriot, had established India House. Through this organisation Indian youths were given scholarships for higher education in England. Swatantryaveer Savarkar received such scholarship.

• Contribution of Savarkar - Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was an eminent Indian revolutionary who fought for the independence of the country from British rule. His involvement in the struggle for India’s independence began early on when he founded the ‘Mitramela’- a secret organisation of revolutionaries in Nasik in 1900. This organization known for encouraging revolutionary and nationalist views was renamed as ‘Abhinav Bharat’ in 1904. Savarkar started many social movements such as removal of caste differences, removal of untouchability, common dining, purification of language etc. He was the President of Marathi Sahitya Sammelan at Mumbai in 1938. Not only was Savarkar a great writer but he will be remembered in the annals of Indian history as one of the first to take up armed resistance against the British rule in India.

Revolutionary Movement in Bengal –

After the partition of Bengal, the outrage against British became more severe. In place of local rebellions comprehensive revolutionary movements started rising at national level. The initial steps to organise the revolutionaries in Bengal were taken by Aurobindo Ghosh, his brother Barin Ghosh, Bhupendranath Datta, etc when they formed the Jugantar party in April 1906.

• Anushilan Samiti and Khudiram Bose – The Anushilan Samiti had more than 500 branches. Barindrakumar Ghosh, brother of Aurobindo Ghosh, was the chief of this organisation. This organisation received counsel and guidance from Aurobindo Ghosh. The Anushilan Samiti had a bomb manufacturing centre at Maniktala near Kolkata. Khudiram Bose was a Bengali -Indian revolutionary who attained martyrdom by going against the British Rule. He was a member of the Anushilan Samiti, a revolutionary group in erstwhile Bengal, which opposed the British rule in India through armed revolts and guerrilla tactics. Under their aegis, Khudiram Bose along with Prafulla Chaki planned to kill a judge named Kingsford in 1908 because of his tyrannical nature and biased judgments. But they failed in their endeavor, as they had targeted the wrong coach resulting in the murder of two English women. While Prafulla Chaki killed himself with a bullet to escape the authorities, Khudiram Bose was caught, tried and hanged for his actions.

In the freedom struggle of India revolutionary movement made an important contribution. These revolutionaries displayed daring and determination while fighting against the British rule. The love for the nation and attitude of sacrifice was just incomparable. Their sacrifice proved to be an inspiration to the Indians.

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