Answer :

• Sun yat sen-- Nationalism, democracy and socialism


a) Sun yat sen (1866–1925) came from a poor and rural family background.


b) He experienced all the ill-effects of imperialism which was destroying China. Therefore his political view was based on the socialist ideology which saw “all men equal”.


c) Sun formed the formally organized political party called the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang), in 1912.


d) This party was based on his principles Nationalism, democracy and socialism as fundamental doctrines.


• Chiang Kai-Shek -- Militarised the nation.


a) Chiang founded a military academy at Whampoa, near Canton, in 1924 With Sun yet sen’s support.


b) He made up the Nationalist army, based on methods of Sun Yat-sen.


c) Chinese Communists began to clash with more conservative party elements after Sun’s death.


d) Chiang was Sun’s successor and led a successful military campaign against local warlords in northern China.


e) He expelled the Communists in a brutal coup in 1927 and combined control within his own party.


f) In 1928, he formed a new central government with himself as head of state to form a military nation in China.


• Mao Zedong -- Peasant revolution.


a) The peasants in Hunan Province in China rose spontaneously against their landlords.


b) The conditions were favorable for peasant revolt (1925-27) and Mao organized them.


c) The peasants were forced to pay their taxes years in advance and pay high rents and they were in high debt.


d) Peasants had a hard time surviving and were using "terror with fanfare" with the support of the communist party.


e) Mao wrote, “the peasants had accomplished in a few months what Sun Yat-sen had failed to accomplish in his forty-year effort at revolution”.


• Ken Saro wiwa -- Environmental movement


• Ken Saro-Wiwa worked for the environmental and human rights of Nigeria's Ogoni people


• The Ogoniland which was very oil-rich land had been exploited by multinational oil companies.


• He led a non-violent campaign and peaceful movement of the Ogoni people (ethnic minority in Nigeria)


The Nigerian government executed Saro-Wiwa in 1995.


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