Answer :


a. It was a practice to appoint the senior-most judge of the Supreme Court as the Chief Justice of the country. The controversial appointment of Justice A K Ray in 1973 as the Chief Justice is the result of tussles between the legislature and the judiciary. He was appointed by the government after it set aside the seniority of three judges. What made the appointment controversial was that all the three judges who were avoided had given rulings against the government.

b. George Fernandez was the master brain behind the Railway Strike that shook country in May 1974. Under his active leadership, The National Coordination Committee for Railwaymen’s Struggle organised a nationwide strike by all employees of the Indian Railways. Their demands were related to bonus and service conditions. The strike raised issues like rights of the workers, labour unrest and debates on whether employees of such essential services should resort to strikes. As the government denied to accept the demands of the workers, arrested many of their leaders and organised the army to protect railway tracks, the strike was called off.

c. Jayaprakash Narayan was the founder general secretary of the Congress Socialist Party and the Socialist Party. He was an active participant in the Quit India movement in 1942. After independence, he declined to join Nehru’s cabinet, even though Nehru insisted Socialist leaders to join the cabinet. In 1955, he quit active politics and became a Gandhian. He was actively involved in the Bhoodan movement, negotiations with the Naga rebels and peace initiative in Kashmir. During the emergency, he became the face of opposition and was committed to breaking the Congress dominance in the country. He was the major driving force behind the formation of the Janata Party.

d. Charu Majumdar was a communist revolutionary and the leader of the Naxalbari movement in Darjeeling hills district in West Bengal under the Communist Party of India (CPI). He also participated in the Tebhaga movement. In 1969, he left the CPI and founded the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist). He believed that democracy is a pretention and the Maoist path of peasant rebellion was the solution to their problems. He died in police custody in 1972.

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