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• Adolf Hitler – Gestapo
The leader of the Nazi party, Adolf Hitler considered Jews responsible for ruin and humiliation of Germany. They were killed in specially built concentration camps. This came to be known as the Holocaust. There was the special police troop called ‘Gestapo’ who were assigned to kill and assault Jews. He thought that Aryans should rule the world and justified the purity of race.
• Treaty of Versailles - World War I
After the First World War, the winning allies, Britain and France organised peace conference at Paris in 1919. They wanted to discuss the post-war situation so the treaty was signed with the defeated nations. The most important treaty was the Versailles Treaty under which German colonies were distributed among the winning allies and they had taken control of the rich mines of Germany. Germans were compelled to give a huge amount as war indemnity. Moreover, Germany was made responsible for all war guilt and was disarmed.
• Disintegration of the Soviet Union - Mikhail Gorbachev
The disintegration of the Soviet Union was considered to be one of the most important events in the 20th century. There are many factors which led to the disintegration of the Soviet Union - Mikhail Gorbachev’s administrative measures like Glasnost and Perestroika; not followed the basic principles of Socialism; increasing Corruption and inefficiency of the bureaucracy; No changes in the economic sector. When Mikhail Gorbachev resigned from the post of President, the existence of the Soviet Union came to an end. This led to the end of the Cold war.
• Benito Mussolini – Italy
Benito Mussolini led the Fascist reign in Italy. Mussolini conducted tyrannical rule in the political and economic field in Italy. Violence and cruelty became part of the Fascist movement. His main aim was to bring back the ancient Roman Empire so he implemented various symbols of ancient Roman administration. Through Fascist policies, he suppressed his opponents with the help of his military force called 'Black Shirts' and also conquered nations like Ethiopia, Albania etc.
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