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“Many tribal area

Answer :

Many tribal areas have had a rich tradition of grass root democratic functioning. For example – In Meghalaya, there are three major ethnic tribal groups - the Khasis, Jaintias and the Garos. These groups have their own traditional political institutions. Existed over hundreds of years, these political institutions were well developed and also functioned at various levels like village level, clan level and state level. For example – each clan in the Khasis had their own council known as ‘Durbar Kur’ which was headed by the clan Headman. Even though Meghalaya had grassroots political institutions but most of the tribal areas don’t come under the provisions of the 73rd Amendment. It is maybe because of the fact that policymakers didn’t want to interfere with the traditional tribal institutions.

“However, these institutions weren’t necessarily democratic in their structure and functioning.” The following statement was mentioned by the sociologist Tiplut Nongbri. Nongbri also commented on the Bhuria Committee Report that “Committee’s concern for the traditional tribal institutions is appreciable, it fails to take stock of the complexity of the situation”. It was seen that tribal institutions led to the increase in the open intolerance towards women and the development in the society only led to the misrepresentation of a lot of things. This is only making it complicated to identify which is traditional and which is not.


Reinterpretation of western and Indian ideas, equality, traditional ideas of Justice, the scale of poverty, social discrimination, political freedom, economic freedom, social justice, equal rights irrespective of caste, creed, race and gender, etc, all these issues were discussed before India became Independent. When India was fighting against the British rule for independence a vision of what Democracy in India will look like came into view. Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a constitution for India in 1928.

The resolution passed at Karachi session of the Indian National Congress discussed how the constitution of independent India should look like. “Karachi Resolution reflects a vision of democracy.” It meant to re-plan and reconstruct the social structure and to create such a society which will be democratic in nature and not just to hold elections for promoting democracy.

The vision of democracy becomes clear with the Karachi resolution reflects the nationalist movements which India had. It also conveyed the values which got represented in the Indian constitution. The preamble in the Indian constitution not only guarantees political justice but also social and economic justice. We can also see that equality is not only about equal political rights but also of status and opportunity.

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