1. Mapping was a powerful tool for exploitation and control of the colonies because maps provided a great deal of information about a region such as the different places, climate, crops, and mineral resources.
2. Such information enabled the colonial powers to exploit the resources of a region and establish their rule.
3. In India when the British established their rule, they began making detailed maps of the interiors of the country. They also established a department called Survey of India.
4. One of the most important geographical surveys was carried out in 1802 by William Lambton, starting from Chennai (south) to the Himalayas (north) in order to determine the length of a longitude and also the heights of various places.
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