Answer :

DNA markers are small regions of DNA sequence which are unique to an individual.

The various markers used in DNA fingerprinting are:

1. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP’S):

It is a non-PCR based approach to identify the DNA sequencing. In this process DNA is digested at specific sites with restriction enzymes. The pattern band of fragments thus formed are separated by Gel electrophoresis and identified under X-ray or UV.

2. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD):

It is a PCR based approach to find out specific DNA sequence. In this process many short primers are formed. From which random DNA segments are amplified using PCR(which means specific DNA sequence information is not required).The band pattern formed from these DNA fragments are separated by Gel electrophoresis and identified under X-ray or UV .

3. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism:

In this process DNA is digested with the restriction endonuclease enzyme. Selective amplification of the fragments from a mixture of DNA fragments is done.

4. Southern Bloating:

In this process the fragments of the DNA are transferred to nylon sheath. These fragments are the mixed with radioactive isotope and the band of pattern formed are then visualised under UV or X-ray.

These are the various markers used to identify DNA sequencing.

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