Q. 22

List the steps of

Answer :

Steps of primary succession in water-

i. Plankton stage- The phytoplanktons are the pioneer species in water. After this, come the zooplanktons which feed on the phytoplanktons. These planktons settle down as organic matter which forms the base for the next stage.


ii. Submerged stage- Plants like Hydrilla grow underwater using the organic matter.


iii. Floating stage- The submerged plants are replaced by free floating angiosperms like Azolla with time.


iv. Reed swamp stage- The floating plants start disappearing and replaced by amphibious plants like Reed in shallower regions of water. These further contribute for the formation of marsh and new shore.


v. Marsh meadow stage- On new shore, plants which are well suited for marshy conditions like Carex grow rapidly and lowers the water content.


vi. Woodland stage- Shrubs and medium sized trees form vegetation on the edges of the marsh meadow forming woodland.


vii. Climax stage- New trees, shrubs and herbs appear which are well suited to the climate forming climax forest.


Secondary succession reaches climax community faster than the primary succession since there is presence of soil, water and other environmental factors which are favorable.


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