PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is a technique used in the lab to make millions of copies of a particular section of DNA or gene.
In PCR multiple copies of gene (or DNA) of interest is synthesised in vitro using two sets of primers and the enzyme DNA polymerase.
The materials needed to carry out amplification of gene of interest using Polymerase Chain Reaction (in vitro) are as follows:
- DNA template or gene to be copied.
- Primers: they are small chemically synthesised oligonucleotides that are complementary to the regions of DNA. Primers initiate the PCR reaction.
- DNA nucleotide bases: also known as dNTPs. DNA bases (A, C, G and T) are the building blocks of DNA and are needed to construct the new strand of DNA.
- Enzyme DNA polymerase: they are necessary to add new DNA bases. The enzyme also extends the primers using nucleotides and DNA template.
- Buffer: it is to ensure the right conditions for the reaction.
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