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Human brain is divided into three parts- Forebrain, Midbrain and Hindbrain. And all these are further classified into their subparts.
This picture represents the different parts of brain.
Parts of brain along their functions are written below sequentially –
A. FOREBRAIN- It consists of three sub parts- Cerebrum, Thalamus and Hypothalamus.
● Cerebrum- It forms the major part of the human brain as represented in the diagram. Cerebrum is divided into two parts termed as Left and Right cerebral hemispheres. Corpus collosum establishes a connection between two hemispheres.
Cerebral cortex exhibits grey colour due to the presence of non medullated neurons and white matter of cerebrum is white due to the presence of medullated neurons.
Functions associated with cerebrum-
● The cerebrum is the conscious mind which controls our thinking, imagination processes.
● It controls all voluntary actions.
● Cerebrum contains different centers for all our senses. There are different centers in cerebrum for taste, smell, hearing, vision.
● Thalamus- It is also a part of forebrain around which the cerebrum remains present.
Function of thalamus-
It controls and coordinates the signal and impulse transmission in sensory and motor neurons.
● Hypothalamus- It is present beneath the thalamus region.
Functions of the hypothalamus-
It controls all our emotions and feelings like love, anger, sadness.
It is also responsible for regulation of sexual behaviour.
Our body temperature, thirst, hunger all are regulated by the hypothalamus.
B. MIDBRAIN- As the name suggests it is located between the middle of forebrain and hindbrain. Therefore, it is called midbrain. Midbrain along with the Hindbrain forms the brain stem which is an extension from midbrain which through hind brain joins to the spinal cord and is called Brain stem.
Midbrain consists of Corpora quadrigemina.
● Corpora quadrigemina- It consists of four bodies therefore known as quadrigemina where quad stands for four. It is located at the distal portion of the midbrain. It is divided into two parts where upper two calculi (spherical structures) are called superior calculi and lower calculi are called inferior calculi.
Functions of corpora quadrigemina-
They are involved in the regulation of reflexes associated with the vision, hearing.
C. HINDBRAIN- It consists of three subparts – Pons, Cerebellum and Medulla oblongata.
● Pons- It acts as a connection. It along with connecting different portions of cerebellum also connects cerebrum and cerebellum.
Functions of pons-
It regulates our sleep.
Due to the formation of a connection between forebrain and cerebellum helps in sharing of information received by the parts of the brain.
● Cerebellum- It is just present in the cerebrum part of the forebrain.
Functions of the cerebellum-
It regulates the movement of our limbs.
● Medulla oblongata- This part joins with the spinal cord and forms the brain stem. It is located between the pons and brain stem.
Functions of Medulla oblongata-
It controls various involuntary activities like breathing, heart beating etc.
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