Answer :

The Non-cooperation movement was started on 1st August 1920 and lasted until February 1922 and was led by Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhiji travelled the length and breadth of the country explaining the ideology and programs with an aim to reach people from all levels of the society. He organized rallies and spoke in public gatherings in a bid to gather public support and mobilize his ideas among the masses in favour of the movement.


The programs of the movement are to Surrender all British titles, renouncing honorary offices, Withdrawing of students from government schools and colleges, Boycott of British courts, Boycott of civil services like army and police, Non–payment of taxes, Boycott of elections and Boycott of foreign goods.


Though Gandhiji decided to cancel the movement because of Chauri Chaura incident, the ideas of Ahimsa and non-violence and Gandhi's ability to rally hundreds and thousands of common citizens towards the cause of Independence was first seen on a large scale in this Non-cooperation movement. For the movement initiated by Gandhiji, more than nine thousand students have left government schools and colleges in the beginning weeks. The educational boycott was most successful in Bengal and followed in Punjab as well. Areas of Bihar, Bombay, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and Assam also saw active participation in this boycott movement. The impact of the movement was also seen in Madras which is far south in India. The boycott of educational institutes was more successful than the boycott of law courts by the lawyers.


The most successful program of the Non-Cooperation movement throughout India was the boycott of foreign clothes. It even reduced the value of import of foreign clothes from 102 crore rupees in 1920-21 to 57 crore rupees in 1921-22 which is almost 50% less compared to previous years.


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