Four contraception’s used by humans are as follows-
a) Barrier Method - In this method of preventing pregnancy, physical devices such as condoms, diaphragm are used by males and females respectively. These prevent the sperms from meeting the ovum by acting as barrier between them. This has the advantage of protecting the person from sexually transmitted diseases.
b) Chemical Method - In this method the females use two types of pills oral pills and vaginal pills, made of specific drugs. The oral pills contain hormones that stop the ovary from releasing ovum, these pills are also called Oral Contraceptives. The vaginal pills contain the chemical called spermicides which kill the sperms.
c) Surgical Method – This method is available for both males and females. In males, a small portion of sperm duct is removed by surgical operation and both the cut ends are ligated properly, the process is called vasectomy. In females, a small portion of oviducts is removed by surgical operation that prevents ovum from entering the oviducts, the process is called tubectomy.
d) Other contraceptive devices such as loop or the copper-T are placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy.
The method has following effects on the health and prosperity of a family-
a) Some of these methods prevent the partners from STDs (sexually transmitted diseases).
b) These methods help to avoid unwanted pregnancy.
c) This allows the parents to space the birth of two children and helps in family planning.
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