Lack of ‘land reforms’ and ‘degradation of cultivable land’ are the major problems of Indian agriculture. The peasants in India have been exploited for a long time since there was an unequal distribution of land. There were 3 revenue systems operating in India during the British period i.e. Mahalwari, Ryotwari and Zamindari which proved to be very exploitative for the peasants. Even after Independence, land reforms were given priority but it could not be implemented effectively due to lack of strong political system. State governments feared taking decisions that went against the lobbies of landlords. Because of this, even today farmers are suffering due to inequitable distribution of land. Another serious problem is concerned with the degradation of cultivable lands which is a result of faulty irrigation. Due to alkalisation and salinisation of soils and water logging, a large part of the agricultural land has lost fertility. Even excess use of chemicals such as insecticides and pesticides has increased the amount of toxics in the soil content. Leguminous crops have been displaced and duration of fallow reduced because of multiple cropping. This had adversely affected the process of fertilization that occurred naturally such as nitrogen fixation. Also rain fed areas face the problem of soil erosion by water and wind erosion.
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