(a) Sensory Neuron - Sensory neurons are nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organism's environment into internal electrical impulses.
(b) Spinal Cord (CNS) - The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of nerve signals from the motor cortex to the body, and from the afferent fibers of the sensory neurons to the sensory cortex.
(c) Motor Neuron - A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the spinal cord and whose fiber (axon) projects outside the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.
(d) Effector = Muscle in Arm - An effector acts in special ways in response to a nerve impulse. In humans, effectors may either be muscles, which contract in response to neural stimuli, or glands, which produce secretions.
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