1. British had a trade surplus with India. The value of exports was greater than the value of imports. This surplus was used to balance its trade deficit with other countries.
2. This surplus was also used to pay the home charges including the private remittances by the British officials and traders, interest payment on India's external debt and pensions of the British officials in India.
3. Many indentured workers from Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Central India migrated to other countries in search of work in mines and plantations.
4. India was a provider of cotton as a raw material to the cotton textile industries in Britain.
5. India became an important market for final goods of cotton textile.
A series of charge affected the pattern of industrialization in India by the early twentieth century. This statement can be analyzed by the following points:
1.With the spread of the Swadeshi movement, the nationalists encouraged the people to boycott foreign clothes and other materials.
2. The export of yarn from India to China had declined from 1906. India shifted from yarn to cloth production.
3. During the First world war, the British industries were busy in producing war-related goods.The exports of goods to India declined. This gave a good opportunity to Indian industries to develop.
4. In the later stages of the war, the Indian industries were asked to produce goods such as uniform, tent, horse and mule saddle, boots, etc. This led to the setting up of new industries.
5. Gradually, the Indian industrialists developed and the Britsih industries declined. The handicraft industry also expanded during this period.
“Industrialization had changed the form of urbanization in the modern period’ This statement is explained below :
1. Industrialisation changed the form of urbanization in the modern period.
2. Leeds and Manchester attracted many rural migrants to work in mills and factories.
3. The population of these cities increased and was mainly occupied by the rural migrants.
4. Urbanization led to migration and overpopulation.
5. In 1851, more than 75% of the people living in these cities were migrants.
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