IMR is Infant Mortality Rate and MMR is Maternal Mortality Rate. IMR and MMR are responsible for affecting the growth rate.
If both decrease, it will result in an explosive population, i.e., a rapid increase in the growth rate. And if both increase it will result in a decline in growth rate. So, options (a), (b) and (d) are incorrect.
Increased IMR results in increased infant death and decreased MMR results in lower death rate of pregnant women. Hence the total effect is almost nil. Here IMR is rising (more infant deaths) and MMR is decreasing (lower maternal death rate) so it will not cause any significant change in the growth rate.
So the correct answer is option (c).
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