Answer :

1. Brahmanical view of the society according to Purusha Sukta:-

a. according to Purusha Sukta, all the elements of the universe, including the four social categories were of “Divine Origin” and supposed to have emanated from the body of “Brahma” – the Brahmans from his mouth, Kshatriya from his arms, his thighs became the Vaishyas and of his feet the Shudra were born.


b. the occupations of the four categories or varnas were also decided accordingly. Brahmanas were supposed to study and teach the Vedas and perform sacrifices. The Kshatriyas were to engage in warfare, protect people and administer justice. The Vaishyas were expected to engage in agriculture, pastoralist and trade. Shudras were supposed to serve the three higher varnas.


2. Buddhist theory of Social Contract:-


a. In the Sutta Pitaka there is an alternative understanding of social inequalities.


b. According to them, originally human beings did not have fully evolved bodily forms. All beings lived in an idyllic state of peace deriving from nature only what they needed for each meal.


c. However, there was a gradual deterioration of this state as human beings because increasingly greedy, vindictive and deceitful.


d. Then they decided to select a person who would get angry on seeing something wrong; who would censure (criticize) that person who deserves to the censured (criticized); and banish that person who deserves to be banished.


e. Such a selected person would be known as THE MAHASAMMATA - the great elect and all the people would great elect and all the people would give him a proportion of rice.


f. Thus, according to Buddhist traditions the institution of kingship was based on human choice and they recognised the role of human agency in creating and institutionalising economic and social differences.


g. And since human beings were responsible for the creation of the system they could also change of in future.


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