Q. 103.7( 3 Votes )

In what way was the administration of the Company different from that of Indian rulers?

Answer :

The administration of the company was different from that of the Indian rulers in many ways. The company successfully expanded its power with the help of the then Governor-General from 1773 to 1785- Warren Hastings. During his time, the company acquired power in Bengal, Bombay and Madras. For making the administrative system easier, they divided the British territories into administrative units called Presidencies. Bengal, Madras and Bombay were the three Presidencies. Each of these presidencies was headed by the governor. Governor-General was the supreme head of the administration. The first Governor General Warren Hastings introduced many administrative reforms related to the field of Justice.

A new system of justice was introduced in 1772. Criminal court also, known as faujdari Adalat and Civil court called Diwani Adalat were the two types of courts at the district level. In the civil court, Maulvis and Hindu pandits deciphered Indian laws for the European district collectors. In Criminal court, Qazi (judge) and Mufti headed the court and they were managed by the collectors.


Based on the different schools of the dharmashastra, Brahman pundits interpreted the local laws in a different manner. Because of this, 11 pandits were asked to make a digest of Hindu laws in 1775. This was translated in English by N.B. Halhed. For making easier for the European judges, a code of Muslim laws was made by 1778. According to the Regulating Act of 1773, a new Supreme Court was set up and in Calcutta, the Sadar Nizamat Adalat was established which was the court of appeal.


The Indian district was headed by the collector whose main job was to collect revenue and taxes, with the help of judges, Police officers and darogas he has to maintain law and order in his district. The Collectorate, his office emerged as the new centre of power and patronage. All the other positions of power and authority were replaced.


NOTE – Mufti – he is a jurist who instructs about the laws of the Muslim community and he was supervised by Qazi.


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