After the 2004 general election, there was a rise in a coalition government. The political process divided into four groups of parties.
a. Parties that were in alliance with the Congress.
b. Parties that were in alliance with the BJP.
c. Left front parties.
d. The others who did not support the above three.
Despite the emerging competition and conflicts, there were few things that were in consensus.
1. Most of the parties supported the idea of new economic policies. There was a consensus that the change in the economic policies would progress the nation and would help India in emerging as an economic power in the world.
2. The parties had a similar view on the acceptance of social and political claims of the backward castes. There was consensus on the reservation of seats for the backward castes in education and employment.
3. The idea of shared power emerged. There was wide acceptance of the role of state-level parties in the governance of the country.
4. The idea of more focus on practical consideration rather than ideological positions. The coalition parties drove the focus from ideological differences to power-sharing arrangements.
The above consensus changed the politics since then in the country. Though there is huge competition In the politics yet it is based on certain implicit agreements.
Jammu and Kashmir is an Indian state situated in the extreme north of the nation. It has been granted special status by Article 370 of the Indian Constitution.
The state comprises of three regions namely Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh.
1. The main region of Kashmir is Kashmir valley, the people here are Kashmiri and mostly Muslim while a little population of Kashmiri who speaks Hindi.
2. Jammu region geographically comprises both plains and foothills, with a mixed population of Hindu, Muslim and Sikhs and even other communities with different linguistic.
3. Ladakh is mostly mountainous region and comprises of both Muslim and Buddhists in equal proportion.
The divergence in Jammu and Kashmir could also be seen in the politics. The region of Kashmir is dominated by Kashmiri identity politics who demand more autonomy for the state.
There is another identity politics that is formed under the power structure of the state and operates at the regional and sub-regional levels.
There is a third identity politics that represents the collective marginalization on the basis of tribals, caste, and other categories.
The diversities in religion, culture, linguistic, ethnic and tribal along with diverse political aspiration makes the state plural society and politics. Besides these diversities, the state has remained intact.
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