Q. 254.5( 2 Votes )

In spite of stron

Answer :

India is a vast country which shares its boundary with Pakistan, Nepal, China and Bangladesh. Even though India has fewer resources it has been forced to divert its expenditure for the defence sector. This type of shift in expenditure towards defence sector started especially after 1962 (time at which war took between India and Pakistan), then onwards India started concentrating on a Military development.

The nuclear defence was being prepared by Pakistan with the help of the Chinese government. Therefore for ensuring the national security, India was also forced to develop the nuclear defence in the emerging world. It was also very much necessary to develop nuclear in the developing world. Features of Nuclear policy in India:

• The peaceful explosion was the term used for the first nuclear test conducted by India. India was agreed to the agreement that it was committed to the policy of using nuclear power only for peaceful purposes.

• India has agreed to the agreement that, India will disarm the nuclear weapons if all the other countries in the world are ready to disarm their nuclear weapons. This type of agreement is known as horizontal and vertical nuclear disarmament.

• It should be only used for peaceful purposes and would possess only for minimum nuclear deterrence.

• UN Security Council forcefully tried to impose the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 on the rest of the world. India criticized this treaty as always discriminatory and had refused to sign the treaty.


Tibet conflict

• Tibetan conflict was the crux of all the major border issues faced by India, China and Tibet. With China taking control over Tibet in 1950, India's territorial integrity and sovereignty were under question. Tibet had acted as a buffer state for both China and India and was important for maintaining India’s sovereignty. Even the citizens of Tibet were against this. The subsequent efforts by the Government if India to persuade the Chinese government to revoke their decision were in vain.

• With the enactment of the Panchsheel agreement between India and China, India accepted the Chinese occupation of Tibet. But both the countries agreed to respect each other’s sovereignty, integrity and security.

• In 1958 the Tibetan citizens rebelled against China for their occupation of the country. The subsequent clashes between the Chinese forces and Tibetan forces resulted in the departure of Dalai Lama and their followers from Tibet to India. The Indian government gave them shelter and protected them. This was considered as cheating by the Chinese government. The Sino-Indian relations are still affected by this.

Border disputes

• The rise of a border issue between India and China has also worsened the relationship. It aroused in the 1950s. According to India, the issue was settled in the colonial period. But China was not ready to accept this. They argued that colonial decisions were not applicable in the current period.

• The dispute revolved around the areas of the western and eastern ends of the border. China claimed that Aksai Chin in Ladakh area majority area of Arunachal Pradesh will come under their territory. They occupied the Aksai Chin area and built a strategic road. In 1962, the Chinese forces attacked the region. The Indian forces emerged victorious in the western front of Ladakh, but on the eastern side, the Chinese were able to advance till the Assam plains. Finally, the Chinese forces declared a unilateral ceasefire and ended the invasion. Still, they were able to occupy some strategic regions of Arunachal Pradesh.

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