(a) Oleic acid is hydrophobic (water-hating) in nature and thus it cannot be dissolved in water. Therefore, to reduce its concentration it is dissolved in alcohol in which it is highly soluble. This alcohol is then dissolved in water to form a thin layer of oleic acid, and since it is hydrophobic the oleic acid molecules get organized next to each other in a single layer which is one molecule thick.
(b) Lycopodium powder is used to distinguish the region of oleic acid and water by forming a boundary between the two. It also weakens the surface tension of the oleic acid and allows the layer to expand to its maximum size.
Volume of oleic acid in given solution = 1 ml
Volume of alcohol in given solution = 19 ml
Volume of additional alcohol added in the solution = 20 ml
We know that, 1 ml of oleic acid is present in 20 ml of the solution. Therefore, in 1ml of solution,
Therefore, in every 1 ml of solution there would be 0.05 ml of oleic acid. Now since this 1 ml solution is diluted by adding further 20 ml of alcohol, the final solution,
(d) For determining the volume of n drops of this solution an instrument called burette will be used. The burette will be filled to a desired volume as marked on the burette scale. The burette allows the solution to be released drop by drops and thus n drops will be counted, the final value of the volume will be measure through burette scale and then subtracted from the initial value which will be the volume of the no of drops.
Volume of n drops = Initial value – Final value
(e) Let there be n drops in 1 ml of this solution which will be measured by using the burette. We know that in 1 ml of this solution there is 0.0025 ml of oleic acid, then,
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