Answer :

The outermost layer of the earth is in the solid form known as the crust. The crust and the upper part of the layer (or mantle) form the lithosphere which is a very thin layer. Above the Asthenosphere is the lithospheric plate. The Asthenosphere is in the semi-plastic state. Due to the high temperature in the interior of the earth, the part of the mantle remains, i.e., Magma melts and continuous convection happens. In a year, the plates move at a speed of 2 to 12 centimetres and this movement has never been consistent. There are different types of landforms formed because of the plate movements. Landforms such as anticlines and synclines, folded mountains, fault-block Mountains, and plateaus are formed.

Plate margins are generally weak against the earthquakes, volcanoes, and faults. The result of the plate movements is the Fold Mountains, plateaus, and volcanoes. The different plate margins are:


• Divergent margin: In this type of plate margin, plates move away from each other. Due to the divergent of the plates, Magma comes out from the gap in between and turns into solid to form mountains. These mountains are also known as Mid Atlantic Mountains.


• Convergent margin: in this type of plate margin, plates come near to each other. Due to this type of plate movement Fold Mountains are formed. Fold Mountains are formed when rock layers fold due to the compressing of the lithospheric plates along convergent margins. Example - between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate, Himalaya is formed. The Alps, the Andes, the Atlas, etc are the other examples.


• Transform margins: Also known as shear margins, the plates move to slide past to each other, because of these landforms generally doesn’t form. These margins are fault zones, for example- San Andreas Fault Zone in North America.


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