Answer :

Tranquilizers are generally used as a remedy for sleeping disorders. They are also used to reduce anxiety, fear tension and feelings of agitation and sometimes as a stress depressor.

They are generally of two types: minor (mild) tranquilizer and major tranquilizer. Mild tranquilizers are preferred due to their less intensity of side effects.

e.g. Phenothiazine – major tranquilizer, chlordiazepoxide-minor tranquilizer

(ii) What types of detergents are used in toothpastes?

Toothpaste serves the purpose of cleaning the remnant of organic dirt. The detergent used in toothpaste should be able to produce enough foam and should be able to clean the dirt with ease by forming ionic bonds. For this purpose anionic detergents are used in toothpaste.

(iii) Why the use of alitame as artificial sweetener is not recommended?

Alitame imparts sweetness to the food products. It as an aspartic acid-containing dipeptide sweetener and it is around 2000 times sweeter than sucrose. Thus we cannot control the sweetness of the food product so the use of alitame as a sweetener is not recommended.


(i) An antibiotic agent that acts on both gram positive and gram negative bacterial groups is called broad spectrum antibiotic. Ampicillin is a common antibiotic used for treatment of bacterial infection if the bacteria is unknown and may tend to be among the two bacterial groups. The use of this type is restricted to superinfections and to treat bacteria which cannot be treated with use of narrow-spectrum antibiotics. This is because they have certain side effects.

(ii) Antimicrobial agents applied on inanimate objects to destroy the harmful bacteria are disinfectants. They are necessarily used on external surfaces which prevent or kill growth of unwanted micro-organisms on damped places. Disinfectants are generally used to clean house floors, bathroom, etc. e.g. Chlorine or sulphur oxide.

(iii) Cationic detergents

Quaternary salts of amines of chlorides, acetates or bromides are cationic detergents. They have a positive active part in its molecule.

For e.g. cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide

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