i. Sleeping pills are taken by people who have anxiety problems and find it difficult to get sleep. Tranquilizer is the classification of the drug used in sleeping pills. Tranquilizers help to relieve stress and decrease fatigue in the body. They act on higher centres of the nervous system. Most of these drugs are derivatives of barbituric acid. Examples: Luminal, Equanil, iproniazid, barbiturate.
ii. Anionic detergents are used in toothpaste. These are sodium salts of sulphonated long chain alcohols or hydrocarbons. In anionic detergents, the anionic part of the molecule is involved in the cleansing action. For example: alkyl benzene sulphonates are obtained by neutralising alkyl benzene sulphonic acids with alkali.
iii. Artificial sweeteners are chemicals that are used in the food to give a sweet taste. However, unlike natural sweetener, these neither add calories to our body nor cause harm to it. Some examples are saccharin, alitame and aspartame which are generally used to make sweet food for diabetic patients.
However, alitame is not recommendable as its sweetness is difficult to control. A small concentration of it can cause too much sweetness. It is said to be a high potent artificial sweetener.
i. Antibiotics that are effective against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are known as broad-spectrum antibiotics. Chloramphenicol, below image, is an example of a broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Chloramphenicol can be used in the case of typhoid, dysentery, acute fever, urinary infections, pneumonia and meningitis.
ii. Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects. However, they are not safe to be applied to living tissues. They are generally used to kill microorganisms present in drain toilets, floors etc.
For example: 0.2% solution of phenol act as a disinfectant. KMnO4, Cl2 are also used as disinfectant.
iii. Cationic detergents are quaternary ammonium salts of acetates with amines chlorides or bromides as anions. They are cationic detergents because the cationic part of these detergents consists of a long hydrocarbon chain and a positive charge on the nitrogen atom.
For example, Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide is a popular cationic detergent used in hair-conditioners.
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