Answer :

(i) The method adopted for the refining of zirconium is called Van Arkel Method.


• The crude metal is heated in an evacuated vessel in the presence of iodine where the metal iodide being more covalent, volatises.


Zr + 2I2 ZrI4


• The metal iodide is decomposed on a tungsten filament, electrically heated at 1800K resulting in the pure metal depositing on the filament.


ZrI4Zr + 2I2


• An advantage of this method is that it is very useful in the removal of oxygen and nitrogen present as impurities in the metal.


(ii) CO acts as a reducing agent in the extraction of iron and also helps produce high temperature inside the furnace.


(iii) Copper matte contained Cu2S and FeS.


• It is obtained by heating the copper ore in a reverberatory furnace after mixing with silica.


• When heated in the furnace, FeO gets removed as a slag as iron silicate and copper is produced in the form of copper matte.


FeO + SiO2 FeSiO3


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