Answer :

(i) The method adopted for the refining of zirconium is called Van Arkel Method.

• The crude metal is heated in an evacuated vessel in the presence of iodine where the metal iodide being more covalent, volatises.

Zr + 2I2 ZrI4

• The metal iodide is decomposed on a tungsten filament, electrically heated at 1800K resulting in the pure metal depositing on the filament.

ZrI4Zr + 2I2

• An advantage of this method is that it is very useful in the removal of oxygen and nitrogen present as impurities in the metal.

(ii) CO acts as a reducing agent in the extraction of iron and also helps produce high temperature inside the furnace.

(iii) Copper matte contained Cu2S and FeS.

• It is obtained by heating the copper ore in a reverberatory furnace after mixing with silica.

• When heated in the furnace, FeO gets removed as a slag as iron silicate and copper is produced in the form of copper matte.

FeO + SiO2 FeSiO3

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