Q. 245.0( 2 Votes )

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Answer :

(a)


PUBERTY:


Before a girl reaches puberty her reproductive system is not developed .Hence Ovulation does not take place. After girl reaches puberty at the age of around 13-14 years, her reproductive system develops. Ovulation starts taking place and secondary sexual characteristics also develops.


MENSTRUATION:


1. Bleeding takes place, when the ova released at the time of ovulation do not get fertilized. This process is called Menstruation.


2. If at the time of ovulation ova gets fertilized then a woman becomes pregnant.


MENOPAUSE:


It marks the end of the reproductive phase in a woman’s life. The woman does not remain fertile and the circulating female hormones like estrogen and progesterone also decreases.


Whereas when a male reaches puberty, he produces numerous sperms which increase the chances of fertilization of the ova. These sperms are produced till the lifetime of a male.


GAMETOGENESIS:


SPERMATOGENESIS


In males, gametogenesis is also termed as spermatogenesis. It is the process of formation of haploid spermatozoa from the germ cells.



OOGENESIS:


In females, gametogenesis is also termed as oogenesis.It is the process of formation of Ovum or the female gamete.





OR


(a) Oral Pills:


These are birth control pills which are used to avoid unwanted pregnancies. These pills are a combination of hormones estrogen and progesterone.


Merits:


1. It is a reversible method.


2. It has lesser side effects.


3. It also prevents various infections of the ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus etc.


4. It also prevents certain cancers.


De-merits:


1. Can have side effects in the longer run.


2. If not taken at the right time may promote conception.


SURGICAL METHODS:


These are permanent birth control methods. In females the fallopian tubes are tied called as Tube ligation.In males this process is known as Vasectomy.


Merits:


1. It is a highly effective method.


2. It is a quick procedure with lesser side effects.


De-merits:


1. It cannot be reversed.


2. If performed under unhygienic conditions could lead to several health conditions.


(b)IUD’S are Intra uterine devices, these are thin coils or a T-shaped device which is inserted in a women’s uterus to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The most commonly used IUD is Copper- T.


These IUD’S work in the following ways:


1. Increase the phagocytosis of sperms in the uterus.


2. The release of copper ions suppresses sperm motility and fertility.


3. Hormones released by IUD’S make uterus hostile for the sperms.


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