Q. 1 B
The First World War (1914-18) pushed Britain into a brutal, destructive war. To maintain the war effort, Britain needed huge supplies of commodities and manpower. Being the biggest and the most populous colony of Britain, India got drawn into the conflict as a major source of men and material supply to the war. The massive mobilization of resources from India unsettled the impoverished country in many ways.
Effects of First World War on India:
1. It created new economics and political situations,
2. Increase in defense expenditure: It created a new economic and political situation by leading to huge expenditures in defense which were to be financed by increasing taxes, raising custom duties and introducing income tax.
3. Price hike: Through the War years prices increased leading to extreme hardships for the common mass.
4. Villages were called upon for supply of soldiers: Forced recruitment of soldiers bred resentment in villages caused widespread anger.
5. Shortages of food: The shortages of food and spread of influenza epidemic, due to failure of crops in several parts of India in 1918-19 and 1920-21 made the life of the common people miserable and led to widespread hardships.
6. Muslims were disenchanted with the treatment meted out to the Ottoman Empire by the imperial powers. This led to a groundswell of support for non-cooperation.
7. The business classes reacted against policies that restricted their business.
People hoped that their hardships would end after the war was over. But that didn’t happen. All these reasons gave birth to the national movement in the country.
The First World War had many economic and political benefits also:
1. Defense expenditure rose,
2. The war created demands for industrial goods,
3. Being Britain busy in the war Indian businessmen and individual groups got opportunities to increase business,
Example - Setting up of TISCO.
4. Political parties started influencing people.
All this triggered the political and economical situation of India through this the people started forming an alliance against British nation and thus this led to the growth of the national movement in India.
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One feature 'A is marked on the given outline map of India. Identify the feature and write its name on the line provided.
A. Place where Congress session in September 1920 was held.
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