Democracy is the most popular form of government in the world. Today most of the countries in the world are democracies. The word ‘democracy' is derived from two Greek words- demos and kratia meaning public and power respectively. This the word democracy implies giving the power to the people of the country. It can be defined as the government that is for the people, of the people and by the people. Thus, democracy is the form of governance in which the public has the ultimate power in decision making.
There are five major perspectives of democracy:
• Traditional liberal theory
• Pluralist theory
• Elitist theory
• Marxist theory
• Socialist theory
Liberal theory- Liberal democracy is a form of democracy which has a liberal political ideology. Representative democracy operates under the principle of classical liberalism. It was often called a Western theory of democracy or the popular theory of democracy. The main thinkers and followers of the liberal democracy are Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Bentham, J.S Mill, Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson, etc. All these scholars have presented their democratic thoughts in relation to personal happiness, independence and rights etc. A liberal democracy may various constitutional form: it may have a constitutional monarchy or a republic. It may have parliamentary, Presidential or semi-presidential.
Marxist theory- It is a particular form of democracy, which is a type of economic democracy with its nature but Marxist people prefer it to call People's democracy. Karl Marx and Fredric Engel are the great thinkers of Marxism. But the practical approach of this ideology was forwarded by the Lenin, Stalin, and Moa Le Dong etc.
Socialist theory- The democracy which is meant for the society is known as social democracy. The main goal of social democracy is equality. Equality means there should be equal treatment for all the people and there should be no discrimination among the people in the name of caste, race, gender, language etc., Existence of the inequality on the grounds of these factors will against the agenda of the social democracy. There are two necessary things for the establishment of social democracy:
• Everyone should be given equal opportunity
• There should no discrimination for privilege classes depending on the race, caste, religion, language, etc.,
Thus, democracy has its own perspectives in different purviews. It is important for the country to maintain democracy in all these senses. Only then the citizens would be given an equal and competent platform for self-development and to ensure the development and progress of the society and the country as a whole.
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