How is the intracellular levels of ions maintained higher than extracellular levels in animal cells?
Intracellular levels of ions are maintained higher then extracellular levels in animal cells because animal cells have ATP powered pumps like the Na+- K+ pump where 3Na+ is sent out in exchange of 2 K+ ions thus increasing the level of K+ ions in the intracellular region. This is how via the pumps, ion concentration is maintained higher intracellularly than in extracellular region.
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