Answer :

Tribes have been classified on the basis of - Permanent Traits and Acquired Traits.

1) Permanent Traits –

i) On the basis of language

(a) Indo-Aryan – 1% tribes speak

(b) Dravidian – 3% tribes speak

(c) Austric

(d) Tibeto to Burman – 80% tribes speak

ii) On the basis of size

(a) Andaman Nicobar Islands

(b) Gonds, Bhils, Santhals, Oraons, Minas, Bodos, and Mundas

(c) The tribals in India shared 8.2% of total population

iii) On the basis of region

(a) North East

1. Assam – 30%

2. Arunachal, Meghalya, Mozoram, Nagaland – 60%

(b) Ecological Habitat

Rest of India

Rajasthan, Gujarat, Odisha

1. Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Maharashtra

2. Arunachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh

(c) State Population

1. Rest of India

2. North East – 11%

iv) On the basis of physical characteristics

(a) Mongloid

(b) Australoid

(c) Negroit

(d) Dravidian

(e) Aryan

2) Acquired Traits

i) Mode of livelihood

(a) Fisherman

(b) Shifting Cultivators

(c) Peasants

(d) Plantation and Industrial workers

ii) Extent of assimilation

(a) Tribes absorbed into Hindu society through sanskritisation acculturating and acceptance of Shudra fold. They were incorporated in Hindu society according to their attitudes and financial status.

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