1. The Civil code of 1804 or the Napoleonic Code led to the introduction of many reforms which were already introduced in France and other parts of Europe.
2. The Civil code was exported to the regions under French control in the Dutch Republic, Switzerland, Italy and Germany.
3. This code simplified the administrative divisions.
4. It abolished the feudal system and freed the peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
5. Guild restrictions were removed.
6. Transport and communications were improved.
According to Paul Bernard, the three barriers that were responsible for the economic growth in Vietnam were:
1. High population level.
2. Low agricultural productivity
3. High level of indebtedness among peasants.
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