HIV or Human immune deficiency virus causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) over the time in a patient. It affects the immune system in the following steps:
a. The virus enters the macrophages where its RNA replicates to form viral DNA with the help of reverse transcriptase enzyme.
b. The viral DNA gets incorporated in the DNA of host cells to produce more virus DNA.
c. Viral progeny is produced when the virus enters the ‘T’ lymphocytes which, on their release, attack the other ‘T’ lymphocytes.
d. This causes a decrease in the number of ‘T’ lymphocytes causing a major loss of immunity and the making the patient prone to infections.
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