Pressure groups and movements exert pressure on politics in a variety of ways-
1. They try to gain public support by influencing media and the general populace. They carry out information campaigns, organizing meetings, filing petitions, etc. to gain more attention towards their issues.
2. They often organize protest activity like strikes or disrupting government programs. This is done so that by disrupting the normal functioning of the government, more attention can be payed to their issues. Workers’ organisations, employees’ associations and most of the movement groups resort to these steps.
3. Business groups often employ professional lobbyists or sponsor expensive advertisements. Some persons from pressure groups or movement groups may participate in official bodies and committees that offer advice to the government.
One example of such a movement is the Narmada Bachao Andolan in India, which started with the specific issue of the people displaced by the creation of Sardar Sarovar dam on the Narmada river. Its objective was to stop the dam from being constructed. Gradually it became a wider movement that questioned all such big dams and the model of development that required such dams.
Explanation- Pressure groups and movements have a clear leadership and some organization. But their active life is usually short.
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