Q. 20 B5.0( 2 Votes )

How did the Non-C

Answer :

1. In Awadh, the movement was against the talukdars and landlords who demanded exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other cesses. Additionally, the peasants had to do begar (forced labour) and work without any payment. Therefore, the peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, the abolition of begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.

2. Led by Baba Ramchandra (a sanyasi), Jawaharlal Nehru and a few others, the Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up in different regions. When the Non-Cooperation Movement was launched, talukdars and merchants were attacked and looted and many local leaders declared that no taxes were to be paid and the land was to be redistributed among the poor.

3. In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerilla movement spread in response to the colonial government’s orders. Large areas of forests were closed, preventing the forest people from grazing their cattle and collecting fuelwood and fruits, which affected their livelihoods and led to a denial of their traditional rights. Additionally, they were also forced to contribute begar for road building by the government.

4. Led by Alluri Sitaram Raju, people were persuaded to wear khadi and give up drinking. However, the situation here turned violent with the spread of the Non-Cooperation Movement. The Gudem Rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried out guerilla warfare for achieving Swaraj.

5. The Non-Cooperation Movement was launched with aim of ‘non-violence and not cooperating’ with the British. However, as the movement spread, it took different faces in different places. It soon turned violent in many places which eventually led to Gandhiji calling off the movement in 1922.

NOTE - Gandhiji’s idea of non-cooperation i.e. ‘not cooperating with the British administration’ in all ways was aimed at bringing people from different groups and communities under the nationalist struggle for freedom and independence from British rule. Although the meaning of Swaraj i.e. independence was different for different groups, it was still able to unite everyone and shaped the creation of mass mobilization at the national level.

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