The introduction of print technology brought down the production of books cheaper.
1. Many people started reading books.
2. All types were available in the market, and the number of readers increased.
3. A new culture of reading books emerged as access to books was easy.
4. Earlier, books were read only by literate people.
5. The publishers started printing books of popular ballads and folk tales with pictures so that illiterate people could listen to these.
6. The literate people read these tales and ballads to illiterate people, and even sacred texts could be read out to them.
7. The number of hearing public also increased gradually.
Thus, the advent of print brought the reading public and heard public closer.
The novels that were written during the nineteenth and twentieth century tried to create a sense of pan-Indian belonging.
1. The Indian novelists wrote about the culture of India and developed a sense of pride and belonging among the Indians when the British thought the Indian culture to be inferior.
2. A novel written by Srinivasa Das expressed fear about the intermingling of the western and Indian culture. This novel brought out the right way to live, and it taught the way and importance to remain in one’s own culture and tradition.
3. The early twentieth century witnessed many women novelists too. These women wrote about women who changed the lives of men, love and the right to choose or refuse their relationships.
4. Titash Ekti Nadir Naam, an epic novel written by Advaita Malla Burman brings out the story of Ananta, a child born to parents who were separated. The child gets educated in the city. The novel also explains the lives of Mallas, their culture, tradition and animosity with peasants and the oppressive upper caste behaviour.
5. The actual political movements were much inspired by the novels about Marathi and Rajput warriors.
6. Many freedom fighters were inspired by Bankim’s Anandmath which was about a secret Hindu militia which fights against Muslims and establishes a Hindu kingdom.
7. Buddhadeb Mukhopadhyaya wrote Anguriya Binimoy in which Shivaji was portrayed as the Hero. He was seen fighting with the treacherous Aurangazeb and winning him, inspiring himself as nationalist fighting for Hindus.
8. Novels written by Premchand had characters from all sections of the society.
9. The novels made people imagine about the heroic past and made them take pride in our past. This created a sense of belonging and feeling of oneness among our Indians.
Thus, novels created a sense of pride, oneness and a feeling of patriotism in the minds of many people.
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