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How did nationali

Answer :

Vietnamese resistance to French domination emerged in different spheres of life.

1. Teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum laid down by the French. An increase in the no. of Vietnamese teachers in the lowers classes resulted in the modification of the text prescribed by the French. The teachers many times silently changed the texts and criticized what was written.

2. The educated sections of the society felt the need to fight for the benefit of all. Various student organizations and political parties were formed such as the Party of Young Annan and the publishing journal such as the Annamese Student.

3. The go-east movement was a major initiative which was seen as a weapon for driving out the French. Some 300 Vietnamese students went to Japan to acquire modern education, in their hopes to overthrow the puppet emperor and re-establish the Nguyen Dynasty that had been deposed by the French. Some Vietnamese students were also inspired by the popular movement under Sun Yat-sen and organized the Association for the Restoration of Vietnam.

4. The workers played a very important role in displaying their fight against colonialism when the rat hunt was launched. The rat menace, interestingly, worked in favour of the Vietnamese workers who were able to collectively bargain for a higher bounty from their French masters.

5. The spread of Christianity brought in by the French missionaries was widely criticized and seen as a threat to the religious beliefs (Buddhism and Confucianism) of Vietnamese. The Hoa Hao Movement is an example of a religious movement. Led by Huynh Phu So, it drew its religious ideas from the anti-French uprisings of the nineteenth century.

Important-Although this question carries 3 marks, but students are supposed to mention all the important points according to the question. Also, this answer is a mix of all important points taken from the entire chapter.

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