Nationalism developed through culture in Europe:
1. Romanticism was a cultural movement that believed in emotions, intuitions and mystical feelings over reason and science. Romantics like Johann Gottfried Herder believed that German culture was alive among the common people.
2. Local culture was sought also to reach the large population of illiterate people. In Poland, Karol Kurpinski turned the folk dances and music into nationalist symbols.
3. The language was also essential as a nationalist identity. When Polish was forcefully removed from schools and Russian was imposed everywhere after Russian occupation, the people saw the use of Polish language as a sign of national resistance.
Paul Bernard argued for economic development in Vietnam:
1. He argued that the main purpose of making a colony was to get profits.
2. If there was economic development then people would buy more goods because their standard of living would increase.
3. As the markets would expand, French would make more profits from the increasing business.
Explanation: Most of the colonial economists were concerned only with extorting more profit and not in the improvement of the life of the people.
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