Q. 15

How did industria

Answer :

The environment of England was unpolluted before the industrial revolution. The lichens on the bark of the trees were pale and white winged moths were numerous which could easily camouflage on the trees. The dark winged moths were less as they could not camouflage and were thus, easily spotted by birds for food.

After industrial revolution, the lichens became dark due to deposition of soot. This, in turn, favored the dark-winged moths while the white-winged were picked by birds. The population of the former which was naturally selected increased.


Flying squirrel is a placental mammal, which are known to spend a long time developing inside the mother's body being nourished by a placenta before they are born. The flying phalanger or sugar glider is a marsupial mammal, which may only spend a short time developing inside the mother's body and are very tiny when born. They are known to crawls into their mother's pouch and get nourished by their milk as they continue to grow and develop in the pouch. It is known that they show adaptive radiation whereas flying squirrels have evolved independently.

The resemblance between flying squirrel and flying phalanger with reference to their evolution proves the occurrence of convergent evolution.

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